A few things here, as there's tons of misinformation.
The exhaust part is talking about MODIFYING your existing exaust.
i.e. you CAN NOT cut open your factory muffler, remove baffles, rivet it back together, and fart your way down the road. You also can not remove the muffler completely.
If you put on an aftermarket muffler, that is fine - it is made that way from the factory. Inlet and outlet size shouldn't matter either, so long as it isn't modified from how it was created originally.
As for the guy who got a ticket for a 3" in/out... my guess is, the car is louder than f**k and the cop didn't like it. There are noise bylaws that prohibit you from operating a vehicle that makes too much noise. Often aren't enforced unless you're being a douche, but sometimes a cop has an itch to scratch, and you're right there.
I know this from dealing with cars and motorcycles - it's not illegal at all to install an aftermarket Akro or Hindle or whatever exhaust on your bike, but you damn sure can't pop the rivets on the can, pull the packing/baffles out, rivet it back, and ride on your merry way (not legally anyways). The other side of that coin is, if the modification isn't obvious, they're not likely to be able to tell. If it's worth the risk, go for it.
Best advice is to get a GOOD exhaust that isn't annoying or obnoxious and not to drive like a tool bag. Drive like you don't want to be noticed, and you won't be. These retards driving their civics and hyundai's around in 1st gear, buzzing in and out of lanes, and generally acting a fool... those are the guys the cops go after.
As for headlights, any non DOT certified assembly is illegal. Hands down. Get caught with it and it's a fine, and possibly a vehicle inspection (quite likely, given it's a light).
For bulbs, the ricer blue/white/purple ones that have a coating on the bulb are ILLEGAL. Not only that, they reduce your light output and make you look like a knob.
Here is one section from the Alberta Vehicle Equipment Reg:
(5) A person shall not attach or apply anything that colours the
light from a headlamp to the headlamp, part of the headlamp or a
bulb in the headlamps.
For HID's, the "drop in" HID "kits" that are simply a HID bulb with a 9006 (or other) base put onto it are ILLEGAL. When installed into a regular housing, that housing is no longer DOT compliant, because it was designed for another type of bulb. Furthermore, it is stupid. The reflector in a halogen-type headlight assembly is designed to reflect light coming from a very specific location on the bulb itself. Moving that location even a few millimeters changes the way the light is reflected and can very easily blind other drivers. Every time I see someone driving with one of those kits on their vehicle, I put on my high beams AS WELL AS all four 100 watt off road lights, just to let them know how it feels to be blinded by an idiot.
If you want HID's in your vehicle, do it right, and retro fit it. It is legal grey area, depending on the type of headlight you use to retrofit. If you don't cut up a factory one, and simply shoe-horn it in, then you're fine for sure. if you cut up a factory headlight, and use the projector from it, then you're VERY LIKELY illegal, technically, as your headlight assembly is no longer DOT compliant. But (big but), it's not obnoxious, not blinding, and actually lights up the road FAR better than a drop in HID or the factory halogens, and it blinds people FAR less than either of the other two. I've done that retrofit on my truck, and while yes, I'm risking the cops not liking it, I've never had a problem with it, never been flashed before (except when I'm making a point to the drop-in idiots), and I've had cops look at, and notice, the "cool HID headlights" on my truck twice.
As for signal lights, if you use the clear corners type thing, make sure they are DOT, and if they're not, they're illegal. If they're not DOT, make sure they are bright and not obnoxious, and you'll likely be left alone. If you have blue or green lights in them, you're a damn fool and deserve the ticket you get. If you have red lights (even in the signals) on the front of the vehicle in any way (i.e. visible from the front, except for lights that wrap around slightly on the rear), they are illegal, and you'll likely get a ticket.
Blue lights, green lights, yellow lights, whatever.... here is what it says about colored lights:
17(1) A lamp on the rear of a vehicle must emit red light unless
this Regulation permits another colour.
13(2) Back-up lamps that are lit only when a vehicle is backing up
may emit white light.
It does not say anything about those stupid looking blue washer sprayer lights, or any other blue lights. It is stupid, and annoying, but I don't see anything in the law about forward facing blue/green/purple whatever lights. Your signal lights must be amber (i.e. they CAN NOT be white/blue/purple/green/penis colored) on the front and red or amber on the back (i.e. they can not be white/blue/purple/green/penis colored). As long as your turn signals are the correct color, you shouldn't run afoul of the law by putting ugly blue accent lights on the front of the vehicle.
As for underbody lights, I didn't find anything about it. I may have missed something, and maybe those ugly accent lights along with underbody lights are illegal... this i'm open to correction on.
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